History of Computer Keyboard

The computer keyboard is a fundamental input device that has played a crucial role in the evolution of modern computing. It has undergone various transformations and improvements over the years to become our essential tool. In this article, we will delve into the fascinating history of the computer keyboard and explore its significant milestones.

The Early Days

The origins of the computer keyboard can be traced back to the early mechanical typewriters of the 19th century. The first commercially successful typewriter, invented by Christopher Latham Sholes in 1868, featured a QWERTY layout that is still widely used today. This layout was designed to prevent mechanical jamming of the typewriter’s metal arms, and it soon became the standard for keyboards.

Teletype and Early Computers

With the advent of teleprinters and teletype machines in the early 20th century, keyboards became a crucial component in the emerging field of computing. Teletypes allowed users to transmit and receive messages through telegraph or telephone lines, and they featured keyboards similar to those found on typewriters.

As computers emerged in the mid-20th century, they were often operated using punched cards or paper tape. However, keyboards became a primary input method with the introduction of the mainframe computers, such as the UNIVAC and the IBM 650. These early computer keyboards resembled the teletype and used mechanical switches for crucial actuation.

The Rise of Personal Computers

The introduction of personal computers in the 1970s and 1980s brought about significant changes in keyboard design. As the size of computers reduced, so did the keyboards. One of the notable early personal computers, the Altair 8800, featured a keyboard with a layout similar to a calculator.

In 1981, IBM launched the IBM Personal Computer (PC) with a keyboard that set the standard for future keyboards. It introduced the 101-key layout, including the function keys, arrow keys, and a numeric keypad. This layout became the de facto standard for PC keyboards and is still widely used today.

Ergonomics and Innovations

In the late 1980s and early 1990s, ergonomic keyboards gained popularity. These keyboards were designed to reduce strain and provide a more comfortable typing experience. Ergonomic keyboards often feature a split layout, with the keys divided into two sections, allowing users to position their hands more naturally and relaxed.

Another significant innovation in keyboard design was the introduction of the membrane keyboard. Instead of mechanical switches, and membrane keyboards, they used pressure-sensitive membranes beneath them, resulting in a quieter and more affordable typing experience.

Modern Keyboards and Beyond

With the rise of personal computing, keyboards continued to evolve and adapt to changing technologies. The introduction of laptops and mobile devices led to the development of compact and portable keyboards. These keyboards often featured a smaller form factor and integrated touchpads or track points for cursor control.

In recent years, mechanical keyboards have gained popularity among enthusiasts and gamers. These keyboards use individual mechanical switches beneath each key, providing tactile feedback and customizable typing experiences. Mechanical keyboards offer a satisfying typing experience and are known for their durability.

The emergence of wireless and Bluetooth technology has also influenced keyboard design. Wireless keyboards eliminate the need for physical connections, providing greater flexibility and freedom of movement.


The computer keyboard has come a long way since its early days as a typewriter attachment. From mechanical typewriters to modern ergonomic and mechanical keyboards, it has evolved to meet the needs of computer users. As technology advances, we can expect further innovations in keyboard design, ensuring that this vital input device remains an integral part of our computing experience.

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